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Our Words
Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

Submissions Policy

This section contains articles and resources written by Freedom Movement participants about Movement events and aspects. Most of these articles are in PDF format.

See also:

History & Timeline: 1951-1968 — Descriptions of Movement events.
Letters & Reports From the Field — By Movement veterans.
Discussions — Transcripts of group discussions by veterans.
Our Stories — Memories, narratives & interviews of Movement veterans.
Our Thoughts — Analyses and commentaries by Movement veterans.
Documents — Movement publications, reports, organizing materials, strategy papers, etc.

General Topics

Example Segregation Laws. (Birmingham & Montgomery)
Voting Rights History — Two Centuries of Struggle, Bruce Hartford
Voting Rights — Are You "Qualified" to Vote? (AL, LA, MS literacy tests)
Women in the Freedom Movement. (Compilation)
Freedom Songs and Singers. (Multiple articles)
Nonviolent Resistance. (Multiple articles)

Articles Grouped by Major Events

School Desegregation
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Sit-Ins of 1960s
Founding of SNCC
Freedom Rides
Albany & Southwest GA Movement
Mississippi ~ Into the Storm (1961-63)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)  
Birmingham Movement
March on Washington
St. Augustine Movement
Freedom Summer & Freedom Schools   
MFDP Congressional Challenge
Selma & March to Montgomery
ASCS Elections
SCLC/SCOPE Project
Lowndes County, AL
Opposition to Vietnam War
Black Power

Individual Articles & Speeches

1946    Behold the Land, W.E.B. DuBois.
Address to Southern Youth Legislature of the Southern Negro Youth Congress
1952Martyr for a Cause: Christmas Night Bomb Assasination of Harry Moore, Gloster Current, NAACP.
(See Murder of Harry & Harriette Moore for background.)
54-66Literacy and Liberation, Septima P. Clark. Freedomways.
(See Citizenship Schools for background.)
1954What Negroes Want Now, Walter White, NAACP. U.S. News & World Report.
(See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1954Status of Racial Integration in the Armed Forces, Clarence Mitchell. NAACP. Journal of Negro Education.
1954Southern Negroes at the Ballot Box, Herbert Hill, NAACP. Crises, May, 1954.
1954How Washington's Color Line Looks to Me, Walter White, NAACP. Saturday Evening Post.
1954Desegregation at Work: Progress and Problems, Henry Lee Moon. NAACP. Nation, December 18, 1954. (School desegregation.)
(See Brown v Board of Education and "Massive Resistance" to Integration for background.)
55-56 Montgomery Bus Boycott (Multiple articles & documents)
1955 Desegregation in the Public Schools: Role of the NAACP, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Social Problems, April, 1955.
(See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
56-66 Birmingham Movement. (Multiple articles & documents)
1956The South in Conflict, Herbert Hill, NAACP. New Leader, April 2nd
1956Next Steps in the South, New South, Southern Regional Council.
(See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1957Even in the Face of Death, Bayard Rustin. Liberation.
(See Southern Christian Leadership Conference Founded for background.)
1957Swimming Pool Showdown, Robert Williams. Southern Exposure.
(See Robert Williams & Armed Self-Defense in Monroe NC for background.)
1957Address by Rev. Shuttlesworth to Pilgramage for Civil Rights
(See Prayer Pilgrimage for Civil Rights for background.)
1958Who Speaks for the South?, Martin Luther King. Liberation
1958Integration Must Move, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Atlantic Monthly.
1958A First Step Toward School Integration, Ann Holden, Nashville CORE. (Pamphlet)
(See Nashville "Grade-a-Year" School Desegregation Scheme for background.)
1960Sit-Ins of 1960-61. (Multiple articles)
1960Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Founded. (Multiple articles)
1960The Burning Truth in the South, Martin Luther King.
SCLC reprint of Progressive article.
(See Alabama Attacks Black Leaders for background.)
1960 The Montgomery Situation, Lawrence Dunbar Reddick, Alabama State College.
(See Alabama Attacks Black Leaders and Montgomery Sit-ins Suppressed for background.)
1961Freedom Rides. (Multiple articles & Documents)
1961The White Problem, Albert Bigelow. Liberation.
(See Freedom Rides for background.)
53-61Cracking the Color Line. Multiple articles about CORE actions & campaigns.
61-66Mississippi ~ Into the Storm. (Multiple articles)
61-67SNCC Organizing Presence in Alabama: A Partial Timeline, Gwen Patton.
61-64Albany & S.W. Georgia Movement. (Multiple articles)
1962The Display of a Feather, Rev. Will Campbell. New South.
(The Manifesto of the Order of the Variegated Feather)
1963 Justice? Testimony of Ronnie Moore, Bob Moses, & Bob Zellner.
CORE Committee of Inquiry, May, 1962
1962The Southern Youth Movement, Julian Bond. Freedomways.
(See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Founded for background.)
1962The Labor Class at Tougaloo, Fall, 1962
(Re Jackson MS Movement of 1962-63)
1962Revolution in Mississippi, Tom Hayden. 30-page Students for a Democratic Society pamphlet about the McComb Movement (2 pages missing)
(See Voter Registration & Direct-Action in McComb MS for background.)
62-64Focus on Cambridge, Gloria Richardson. Freedomways.
(See Cambridge MD — 1962 for background.)
1963Why Didn't They Hit Back? Jhan & June Robbins, Redbook. CORE pamphlet.
(See Cambridge MD — 1962 for background.)
56-66 Birmingham Movement. (Multiple articles & documents)
1963Danville Virginia SNCC pamphlet
(See Danville VA, Movement for background.)
1963 Danville, VA (Police violence). Louis Nasper, SNCC. Freedomways
1963March on Washington. (Multiple articles)
1963Guilty Bystanders, James Farmer. Liberation.
(See Birmingham Church Bombing for background.)
1963Smoke Screen—the Red Scare, Anne Braden. Freedomways
1963Siege at Savannah, Benjamin Van Clark. Freedomways
1963On the Role of Private Black Colleges in the Southern Freedom Movement, John Salter (Hunter Bear), September 11, 1963
1963Address to SCLC Convention, Wyatt T. Walker.
(After March on Washington and Birmingham Church Bombing)
1963SNCC: The Battle-Scarred Youngsters, Howard Zinn. The Nation
1963Registration in Alabama, Howard Zinn. New Republic
(See Freedom Day in Selma for background.)
1963Nonviolence and Police Brutality, Quebec-Guantanamo Peace Walkers. Liberation
63-64St. Augustine Movement. (Multiple articles)
1963 Birth of a Voter, Bob Adelman
(CORE reprint of an Ebony Magazine article written in 1963.)
1963 Integration in the Deep South: Death Goes On, Miriam Cohen, SNCC
1964?Some Notes on Education, Charles Cobb, SNCC.
(See Freedom Schools for background.)
64-65Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), (Multiple articles)
1964Incident in Hattiesburg, Howard Zinn. The Nation
(See Freedom Day in Hattiesburg for background.)
1964 The New Jacobins and Full Emancipation, James Farmer, CORE.
(On nonviolence & strategy.)
1964 Speech by Mike Miller regarding SNCC and the Freedom Movement, February 1964.
64-66Freedom is not Free: Meridian Movement of the Mid-60s, George Smith & Joe Morse
1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer Articles. (Multiple articles)
1964 Louisiana Freedom Summer Articles. (Multiple articles)
1964Chaney-Schwerner-Goodman Lynching, (Multiple articles)
1964McComb Mississippi, Incidents & Events (Multiple articles)
1964Bob Moses Speech to National Guardian Dinner, November.
(See MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention for background.)
1964 Black Belt, Alabama: Total Segregation, Jerry DeMuth. Commonweal
1964 James Forman Speech to SNCC Staff Retreat, Waveland, MS, Nov 6
64-65Mississippi Congressional Challenge, (Multiple articles)
64-66Free Southern Theater. (Multiple articles)
1965Selma Voting Rights Campaign & March to Montgomery (Multiple articles)
1965 Address to Southern Student Organizing Committee, Stokley Carmichael, SNCC. March 21, 1965
65-67Lowndes County Freedom Organization/Black Panther Party (Multiple articles)
1965When We Get the Vote, Wallace Will Get Religion (Montgomery), Bell Chivigny (Village Voice)
1965Questions Raised by Bob Moses, SNCC 5th Anniversary. The Movement
1965Short History of the Freedom Movement in Barbour County, Alabama, Larry Scott Butler, SCLC/SCOPE
(See SCOPE Summer Project for background. See also Diary of Diary of an Alabama SCOPE Volunteer)
1965Official Christian Leadership Not Doing Job in Mississippi, Malcolm Boyd and William Jacobs, Ave Maria Weekly, 1965.
(Delta Ministry reprint)
1966 Strangely Beautiful Land–Land of Injustice, Dagmar Schultz. (Observations of a European)
66-68Black Power (Multiple articles)
1966Mississippi Election—1966 (Panola County), Jonathan Steinberg. Liberation
1966Grenada Mississippi—Chronology of a Movement, Bruce Hartford.
1966Politics of Necessity & Survival in Mississippi, Guyot & Thewell. Freedomways
1967 The Problem is Poverty, Don Jelinek.
Re racism in the U.S. Department of Agriculture and economic racism.
1967Speech to Black Caucus of NCNP by James Forman, September 2nd.
(National Conference for New Politics held in Chicago.)
1967 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence, Martin Luther King. Riverside Church, New York City, April 4, 1967.
Address to Anti-War Marchers, Martin Luther King. New York City, April 15, 1967
1967Cooperation, Not Competition; Community, Not the Individual, SNCC.
(Statement on education and the Black community.)
1968? 1967 High Tide of Black Resistance, James Forman. 27-page page SNCC pamphlet.
62-67 Father Nathaniel and the Greenwood Movement, Paul T. Murray.
Orginially published in Journal of Mississippi History, 2010
1968Memphis is Also America, Pat Watters. Nation

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